Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams in Urea Plants

Course ID: UREA01

Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams in Urea Plants

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Understanding thermodynamics and phase diagrams are vital to understand why a urea plant is designed as it is and why it reacts on disturbances as it does. This course will support managers, engineers, (shift) supervisors and operators to optimize the operating conditions leading to higher safety and reliability and better performance figures of any kind of urea plant.

Module 1: Thermodynamics (duration 1 hr)

  • Main reactions in urea synthesis sections
  • Challenges in urea plants
  • Conversion parameters and its relations with time and temperature
  • Main ratios and parameters to assess the efficiency of urea synthesis sections, including a practical case
  • Influence of water and N/C ratio in conversion
  • Synthesis, inert and system pressure and its impact on conversion figures

Module 2: Phase Diagram (duration 1.5 hrs)

  • Binary phase diagrams and azeotropic mixtures
  • Ternary phase diagrams and top ridgelines
  • Isotherms and isobars
  • Applying phase diagrams for the urea reactor
  • Applying phase diagrams for the various types of carbamate condensers
  • Applying phase diagrams for a CO2 and NH3 stripper
  • Applying phase diagrams in Falling film, Pool Condenser and ACES21 synthesis sections; what are the optimum process conditions
  • Applying phase diagrams in leak detection systems
  • Applying phase diagrams in evaporation sections